This standard is issued under the fixed designation C ; the number immediately 1 This test method is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee C09 on. All the Controls products ASTM C standard. Enter now!. Originally approved in Last previous edition approved in as C – 05a. 2 For referenced ASTM standards, visit the ASTM website,

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Specification of fineness and alkali content of cement, or both, might be beneficial to further improve the reliability and reproducibility of ASTM C Civil, Construction and Environmental Engineering Publications.

Cracking usually appears in areas with a frequent supply of moisture. The effects of clinker alkali content, aggregate reactivity, and sodium hydroxide NaOH solution concentration on the mortar expansion test results were also studied.

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Signs of ASR are typically random map-cracking and spalled concrete. This repository is part of the Iowa Research Commons.

That, honestly, is about as simple as I can explain this reaction. Mitigation methods can be split into those methods suitable for new concrete and those that can be used for existing structures. Determined to understand more, I have spent the past several weeks diving into the mysteries of ASR using recent reports from the Federal Highway Administration and various other scholarly professionals in an effort to fill in the blanks. A petrographic examination of aggregate will give a comprehensive description of the aggregate satm and quantify the asrm rock and mineral constituents present.

Development of a more economical and more abundant admixture may be the future for ASR mitigation.

ASTM C Potential Alkali Reactivity of Aggregates | CTLGroup

When dealing with ASR, a process that takes place over decades, accelerated tests should be conducted with bias. C is used as an initial screening test for aggregates and C determines the effectiveness of the SCM being considered to moderate the aggregate activity.


As stated earlier, many precasters will not have issues with ASR. A s I scrolled through the few articles and reports I have collected over the past decade regarding alkali-silica reactions, I began to realize I had developed an ignorance to this elusive subject. What we do know, however, is important for precasters to understand.


The results show that mortar-bar expansion was promoted with increased cement fineness regardless of clinker alkali, aggregate reactivity, or soak solution normality. Photo provided by Frank Bowen. This is all critical to ASR to show where the reactivity is taking place.

For ASR to occur, four things must be present: Federal Highway Administration, fhwa. Though Stanton might not have been the first to visually recognize ASR, he is credited with the first serious research into why it occurred. This document is currently not available here.

Consequently, the two tests are often run together. At least, this was the blame at the time. In this study, high and low alkali portland cement clinkers were selected and ground with gypsum in a laboratory ball mill to three fineness levels: It is important to understand the benefits and deficiencies offered by various testing procedures. By Frank Bowen A s I scrolled through the few articles and reports I have collected over the past decade regarding alkali-silica reactions, I began to realize I had developed an ignorance to this elusive subject.

However, we must take the time to review the current ASTM standards and check our mix designs to assure material confidence. For precasters in identified ASR areas, the following methods for new concrete may be the most critical: Comments Frank, Great article that gives a simplified overview of ASR, expansion testing, and mitigation techniques. C is used to test the reactivity potential of aggregates, while C includes the use of secondary cementitious materials within the mortar bar samples to determine the effective reduction of ASR.

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However, some cases of concrete failure could not be attributed to either of these causes, prompting a deeper investigation. Many consider C to be the best test method for evaluating deleterious ASR potential because it provides the strongest correlation to field performance. Lithium compounds have also been used, but they may be cost-prohibitive and limited in availability. When lithium, sodium or potassium lose their single outermost electron, they become positively charged. That is, if you have questions about the durability of your concrete, save some samples and leave them exposed to the elements.

ASTM C, Test equipment Controls

ASR can be avoided with a proper concrete mix design. This test is similar to C with a testing period of 14 days. Skip to main content. Overall, ASR is characterized primarily by four main features: You have just begun the journey into understanding your own materials as they relate to ASR.

Atoms are comfortable with themselves when they are fully loaded on that outer band. This makes them highly reactive. This is a result of a number of sequential reactions.

If you can read like a chemist, it looks like this: Search Enter search terms: Eventually, the tensile stresses caused by the increase in volume exceed the tensile strength of the concrete, causing cracks.