G. R. Driver & L. Hodgson, The Bazaar of Heracleides, newly translated from the Syriac and edited with an introduction, notes & appendices. only surviving full-length work, the Bazaar of Heracleides.1 The publication of the Syriac text in , together with a French translation in the same year, is of. It is called indeed the Bazaar of Heracleides, for this is evident that it is the bazaar of spiritual knowledge; but it is not evident who Heracleides [was]. This is .

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For neither thou nor the Council are capable of [understanding] the term ‘union’.

After him came Acacius and recounted unto them the conversation which he had with me and which was considered by them [to contain] impossible things. The first man became a living oc and the second man became a quickening spirit.

For he has then no device which can be devised against the elect of God, since all things have been in all things fulfilled, both his deception and his evasion of the commandments, and he has been conquered in every thing, in secret and openly, 77 both as to his persuasiveness and as to all his force of which he has made use in the weakening and humiliation of the body.

For this reason it was exalted so as to take a name which is more excellent than all names. Baazaar though he is not lacking in a lively sense of the wrongs he has suffered, Nestorius realizes that the triumph of the truth is of more importance than his own fate.

I ought fully to treat two things: He claims to show, first, that his own condemnation at Ephesus was unjust, and secondly, heracleires the vindication of Flavian, who had suffered from the same causes and for the same faith as xxx himself, was the vindication of all that he had stood for.

And first let us use against them their very own words. Nestorius argues that the Cross must be a real moral victory by the Man, not an unexpected triumph by a concealed deus ex machina. For what purpose then dost thou calumniate the fathers? And thou sayest that the Incarnation’ took place through the change of the ousia without his oof ousia and his likeness being changed: If you originally registered with a username please use that to sign in. And hear them; for you would not disclaim these men whom you have brought in accusation against me.


But you, O just judges, what have you examined of these things? In the following months, 17 bishops who supported Nestorius’s doctrine were removed from their sees. Purchase Subscription prices and ordering Short-term Access To purchase short term access, please sign in to your Oxford Academic account above.

Proclus’ sermon, replied to by Nestorius. But Apollinarius provoked reply too soon. You see of how much tyranny I made use and how far I was liable to accusation, because, for the purpose of rescuing myself basaar the conspirators who rose up against me, I had need to post soldiers around my house to guard me, that they might not come against me with violence and destroy me!

Nestorius, The Bazaar of Heracleides () pp Book 1, Part 1.

In this very hope he obtained also obedience and immeasurable love, not that he might obtain victory for himself but that he might secure the exaction of our own [ransom] and conquer not only for himself but also for all men.

Dioscorus is treated as defendant and accused by Eusebius of Dorylaeum. Thus also, in things divine, nothing is his own apart from the human humiliation; but, while remaining God in all things, [he is] that which the man was by his nature in sufferings, even in impassibility.

Who is it who has accepted the offering for all men, when it is he who accepts and he who is offered? The present editors have therefore followed Nau in continuing here from p.

The Bazaar Of Heracleides

Of Leo’s legates, Renatus has died and the others, since they sit apart from one another and do not understand Greek, have little influence. Do you say this, that the body and blood are the ousia of the Son of God, or that the body and blood are of human ousia and have become the nature of the divinity?

Syriac Orthodox Church For these reasons, then, and for similar causes, the incarnation of God took place justly: Either concerning the things which we have subjected to inquiry or heracpeides the things which we have said and of the things which I have confessed and of the things which I have denied that I have imagined, convict him who has erred or instruct him who is ignorant. But since he was not conquered as one of them, it appears that he was outside their nature and therefore was not caught by those things whereby each one of them was caught.

And he brought death into the arena, 68 since it was necessary that it should be abolished; for he hesitated not that his own being should be cast down in death since he had the heraclsides of its abolition.


For if thou takest away the ousias which accept humiliation and exaltation, there is no ousia which has been humiliated. But, on the contrary, as one who has led all men through partiality, as partial thou art hated of all men.

Nestorius, The Bazaar of Heracleides — now online

But nothing like that has taken place in anything nor in all natures which have aforetime existed; and now [forsooth], after all creation has been completed another nature has come into being apart from those which were when it existed not! From those things which they have set down in [their] cunning writings, in the judgement without condemnation.

For if this word ‘with’ hinders there being one Son and his being seated with his flesh with the Father, there are not two adorations of one Son because he is adored with it, since he who is seated with that which is alien is adored in one adoration; for there is a union in the naturesand thou also confessest [it] with mebut the distinction of the natures is not made void on account of the union. But among those things which they have done against me, I convict them of having not justly condemned me, for they have told lies and have deceived many without having convicted me by examination, but according to what he 52 demanded.

But he gave a contrary explanation when I said unto him that ‘this is the beginning and thence rather ought we to begin whence I have admonished thee’.

Nestorius – Wikipedia

And for this reason he became in truth man, which he was not; that is, he became truly flesh and man, but not in nature. Leo, receiving first the letters of Eutyches and Theodosius, writes to Theodosius and Flavian complaining that he has had no report from the latter, and asking for one.

For he 82 lays down the common name ‘Lord’, which is conceived of nature and in nature, as well as the things herracleides are indicative of the properties of the natures, indicating them bazzaar, the divinity and the humanity, the one from God the Father in nature and the other of a woman in nature.


G. R. Driver & L. Hodgson, The Bazaar of Heracleides, newly translated from the Syriac and edited with an introduction, notes & appendices. only surviving full-length work, the Bazaar of Heracleides.1 The publication of the Syriac text in , together with a French translation in the same year, is of. It is called indeed the Bazaar of Heracleides, for this is evident that it is the bazaar of spiritual knowledge; but it is not evident who Heracleides [was]. This is .

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So you undertook the labour of a long voyage from the East to the West to give light to the souls og were plunged in the darkness of the Egyptian error and intent 5 heraclides the smoke of the blasphemy of Apollinarius; men, however, loved the darkness more than the light, since the eyes of their minds [were dimmed] by personal prejudice 6.

They were not convinced; they were heracleeides of error and exposed. In this firm confidence in the might of your prayers mine Insignificance draws nigh to translate this book from Greek into Syriac; yet at least, the hope of the help of the living God being laid upon my tongue and confirmed in my thoughts, I therefore draw nigh to compose these eight chapters wherein the purpose of the book is made clear.

Nestorius, The Bazaar of Heracleides () pp Book 1 Part 2.

Concerning the aim of the book. The aim, therefore, which has been proposed by the writer for this writing is this: Woe unto them that call evil good. For great, to speak as in truth, was the schism which the devil introduced into the Christian body of the holy Church, such as, if [ it were ] possible, to deceive even the elect, and for this reason this remedy has necessarily been required [to be] a corrective and a healing of the sickness of their minds.

This is the aim of the book. Concerning the utility thereof. I suppose that, before [the beginning of] the text, the spiritual utility of this book has been revealed to the reader from [its] aim. According to the punishment that comes upon the doers of injury who make the innocent guilty and the guilty innocent, it gives indeed light to the eyes of the souls by teaching concerning that Christian dispensation which is in truth the more excellent theory concerning the divinity and the humanity.

For through this we are both far removed from blasphemy about the divine nature and about the dispensation, and we are brought nigh unto knowledge through his manifold mercies. But, that our discourse may not be prolonged concerning the great assistance which we gain from this book, which succours us Much has been written concerning the manner of the union, but not even one of them [that have written about it] in this research makes it clear and establishes it in all truth; for they have delighted to make many distinctions, and there are others who have ventured to fuse [the natures] without examination.

But this blessed [Nestorius] has undaunted delivered to us the knowledge thereof which is right. The cause of its title. It is called indeed the Bazaar of Heracleides, for this is evident that it is the bazaar of spiritual knowledge; but it is not evident who Heracleides [was].

This is apposite to the illumination thereof, O reader; namely, Heracleides was a man honoured for his conduct and 5 esteemed for his knowledge, and he dwelled in the neighbourhood of Damascus. Now this man, in consequence of his superiority in these things, was famous even before [his] Majesty for his truthfulness and the justice of his words; who, being superior to all the passions which remove [men] far from the truth, did everything without partiality.

But the book, nevertheless. Into how many parts it is divided.

Now in the first place he composed one dissertation wherein he speaks of all the heresies against the Church and of all the sects that exist concerning the faith of pf three hundred and eighteen, arguing valiantly against those who are of greatest repute among them.

And in the second part he assails Cyril, putting before [everything else] the inquiry touching the judges and the accusation of Cyril. And the third [contains] his own defence and the comparison of their letters; and with this he finishes the first book. But the second book he divides into two parts: Concerning the literary form of the book.

The literary form of the book is But if he conceives og reverse about us, for us the prayers of those who labour not with this sickness are sufficient; while the former will prosper in their own affairs, knowing that we have made no innovations at all.

The editor is blameless. Finished are the titles of the chapters which are [given] in the preceding dissertation. And unto Yah [be] glory!

The beginning of the book, that is, the beginning of the Discourse of the Saint is from here. Now in my opinion whoever is about to investigate the truth in all seriousness ought not to compose his discourse with preconceived ideas, but should bring forward and explain everything which is opposed to the truth.

The heathen indeed are not content to name Christ God because of the suffering of the body and the cross and the death, and they consider that the miracles were [accepted] 8 in error. And they are not differentiated in name, because there is indeed no distinction between them, in that all of them are heathen. But the Jews do not confess that he is Christ because of the Cross and the death, in that they bqzaar for the advent of 15 Christ in all great glory and dominion.


Wherefore the Manichaeans do not admit that Christ is also man by nature, but only God.

Wherefore the Paulinians 16 and the Photinians profess that our Lord Christ himself is only a man and that he is not also God. But the Paulinians say that he is not God but only man because of the birth and death; but they attribute to him miracles as to any of the saints.

Wherefore the Arians profess ehracleides Christ is neither God whole and without needs, nor yet a man, but half God and half man. The Arians confess that he is halt God and half bzaaar of soulless body and of created divinity; deeming him inferior to men in saying that there is not a soul in him and again deeming him inferior also to God in saying that he is not uncreate and without needs.

So also they say that God has only one nature in the body, suffering of necessity, whether he will or not, the sufferings of that nature which he took upon himself, as though he was not of the nature of the Father impassible and without needs. And this they say in order that they may not show him alone to be endowed with authority and command, so that even the command which he accepted is a punishment, and from a punishment which lies in his nature there is no escape; and, while he wished it not, he suffered the sufferings of the body by virtue of the sensibility of the nature: In the midst of these there sprang up heresies, some of the Manichaeans and others of them from the Paulinians.

And which those are which agree with the Arians.

Nestorius, The Bazaar of Heracleides — now online

And wherein they are far removed from them, and in what again they adhere to them. They are far removed from them Wherefore he has not written [the names of] the chiefs of these sects but only their dogmas. But we wish to decline to [give] the names of their chiefs, so as not to prolong our hetacleides nor to be found to have omitted any point in the inquiry by first becoming entangled in [questions of] names.

What the statements are heeracleides those who say that by nature God the Word became flesh without having taken a body. So they accused the Manichaeans of saying that the body of our Lord Christ was not truly a nature but heracleidrs fiction and an illusion; but they tolerate miracles for heracldides most part only of God, either as though it were impossible or even as though it were not decent that they should come about through the body.

And on account of this they fear to confess that the flesh truly came into being, lest in saying this they assume that God is the flesh 21 ; they say: How could this be, seeing that we confess that the body is God, for kf that which is supposed to be flesh is the nature of God and is the same and nothing else? How water which becomes ice is in its nature ice, 11 becoming that which it heracleires not without receiving it from outside: As, after running and flowing water is frozen and becomes solid, we say that it is nothing but water which has become solid, so God truly became flesh though he was by his nature God; and he was in everything and he acted as God.

The Bazaar Of Heracleides

And, as touching [the operations of] the flesh, he both did [them] also in truth, and he suffered also as flesh, and he became flesh in the womb, and in that he became [it] he both was born and grew up truly as flesh; and, after he had chosen to become it, he both hungered and thirsted and grew weary and suffered and was crucified truly, seeing that he was truly flesh. As he was revealed in human form to Abraham and Jacob without having taken bodily frame from outside, so also was his incarnation.

As also he was seen of our fathers Abraham and Isaac and Jacob and the rest of the saints in truth in visible nature, walking in him who walked and talking bzaar him who talked, and eating and drinking in him who ate [so also was his incarnation]; for nothing is done of God through deception, but everything in truth and in nature; for he is the creator and the creator does nothing in schema and in illusion but in nature and in truth.

But those things which were not in the nature of the creator are rightly said to be fiction and illusion, since they cannot hsracleides seen in [virtue of] their nature. How they take the [ words ] ‘ truly and not in nature ‘, and in how many ways ‘ truly ‘ is said. Indeed the flesh has not always existed, but, ot flowing water heraclekdes frozen has the nature of ice though it is not so in its nature but has become [so], thus also has God truly become flesh, and he is the nature of the flesh and not in his nature, in that he is not it always but he became [so] afterwards.

For this is truly the Incarnation, in his nature to become flesh and man and gazaar in illusion nor in schema nor in fiction without hetacleides, which truly would be no incarnation. He therefore who wants to suppose that it came about in fiction flees from the truth.

Wherein those who say [ this ] agree with the Manichaeans and wherein they are supposed to be distinct from them. Has it then baaar revealed to thee wherein they are imagined [to be] the same and wherein they are supposed to have differences and abide by the same? And heraclides ought to leave out the things which follow these, in hwracleides that we may not vainly suppress bazaa truth in what is confessed.


I for my part say: Let us not entirely neglect this point, although thou dost wish to run over it as one which is confessed. I will now explain this inquiry to any heracleires who wishes in order that that which surely is supposed may come to explanation; for I do not see in it anything like or heracleidees to anything [else].

For they are quite as far removed from one another as fiction is far from truth and [as] the body of fiction [is] from the body [of truth]. I see many who strongly hercaleides on these [theories] as something [based] on the truth and ancient opinion. And for this reason I wish thee to examine them not cursorily but with all care, in order that the words of the faith oof not be [treated] without investigation and lightly, but may be clear and known to all men, as things which are somehow defined by definitions and natural likenesses, and not like things which are represented by their shadows [and] resemble this or that so long as they 13 are figured in the same likeness.

Those who say this are not repudiated by them as though they hold our body in contempt, for both of them deny that the body was taken, but because they do not say ‘in truth’, but that the nature of the flesh is illusion. We see then also their readiness in these things, [in bringing forward] what plea is justly theirs, lest their blasphemies should extend beyond what is right.

The refutation of those who say that God the Word became the ousia of the flesh without having taken a body.

I say therefore generally [in reference to] what they say more [insistently] than those who depend on themselves, in order that they may not suppose that they have been condemned because they had not an advocate nor a helper: So then, constrain thou me also to speak unto them.

Take each one of the words that has been spoken by me and thine also, and bid me give an answer to each one of them if I can. But I can, if God wills and gives me that which ought to be said [in order] to instruct according to my own ability. For I indeed am of no worth; but it is for the sake of those who knock and seek at the door of the truth, when it is the truth.

I say that what I have said is a proof of the divine power to be able to become truly flesh, being God. For he who says ‘God in truth’ attributes to him the [quality] of being able [to do] everything; for everything that he wishes he does.

And thereby did he truly become incarnate, because he was man by nature and not by anything else; 14 and the Trinity was the Trinity without having accepted the addition of another ousia.

In truth hast thou spoken, and we ought not to dispute what has been said in truth; for indeed [thou hast said] that God is all-powerful and does all that he wishes.

And because of this his ousia became not flesh, for that which becomes flesh in its nature ceases to be able to do everything, in that it is flesh and not God. But in remaining God he wills not everything nor again does he wish not to become God so as to make himself not to be God. He is not able to wish not to be what he is, but only to be that which he is not.

And for this reason he became in truth man, which he was not; that is, he became truly flesh and man, but not in nature. For that which he is, he is in nature; but that which he became, he became it not indeed in nature, but truly he was that which he became. Whether it is assumed by them that God the Word became truly a body in ousia or in illusion. Dost thou attribute ‘truly’ as in ousia ‘ or ‘in illusion and in fiction’? If God the Word became flesh by nature and remained God as he was, then God the Word was two ousias naturally.

There is not one ousia and another, but the same ousia of God, which became also the ousia of the flesh; and for this reason there is one ousia. Just as when water is running and when it is bzzaar there are not two ousias hreacleides water but one, which exists both in the liquid and in the solid state, although the solid is supposed [to be] the opposite of the running state, so also God: What then dost thou 16 suppose is true? Things which should properly be received with faith you accept with ‘natural logic’ and reduce them to impossibilities.

Then you deprive us in truth of the Christian faith as heathens or Manichaeans who stumble at the Cross of Christ. And who are those who like heathens and Manichaeans stumble at the Cross of Christ?

Are they not those who accept bazaaf humanity as a change of the ousia?