com doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica em reabilitação pulmonar: há . ción entre el impacto de la Enfermedad Pulmonar Obstructiva. Enfermedad pulmonar obstructiva cronica. In: Normativa sobre diagnóstico y trataemento de la enfermedad pulmonar obstructiva crónica, Doyma Barcelona. enfermedad pulmonar obstructiva crónica (EPOC) y 3 millones mueren cada año , lo que la convierte en la tercera causa de muerte en todo el mundo. Cerca de.

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Universidade Estadual de Campinas. To assess the prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and related risk factors. A two-stage census tract, household cluster random sampling stratified by sex and age was used and data was collected through home interviews.

Multiple Poisson regression was used in the adjusted analysis. Of all respondents, 4. After adjustment the following factors were found independently associated with self-reported chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: The prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is high in the population studied and is associated with smoking and age over Frequent health conditions and low leisure-time physical activity are a consequence of the disease.

Enfermedad Pulmonar Obstructiva Crónica (EPOC) | subsection title | section title | site title

Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive, Epidemiology. Estudio transversal, de base poblacional con 1. Chronic obstructive doena disease COPD is characterized by airflow limitation that is usually not fully reversible, progressive and associated with abnormal inflammatory response in the lungs to inhaled harmful particles or gases.

The main risk factors for COPD include cigarette smoking, inhalation of occupational dusts, chemical irritants, and environmental pollution, low socioeconomic condition and severe respiratory infections during childhood.

Chronic inflammation crpnica the lungs can result in damage to the bronchi chronic bronchitis and cause lung parenchyma destruction emphysema with consequent reduced elasticity.

Lung damage varies among individuals as well as symptom presentation. COPD symptoms include chronic cough, sputum production and dyspnea on exertion.

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Although COPD mainly affects the lungs, it also has significant systemic cardiovascular and musculoskeletal consequences. COPD changes are characterized by inflammation, mucus hypersecretion, smooth muscle contraction of the airways, bronchial wall thickening, loss of elastic recoil and alveolar destruction, leading to airflow limitation, inadequate ventilation-perfusion ratio and pulmonary hyperinflation.

COPD comprises puulmonar bronchitis and emphysema but not asthma. Pulmmonar two conditions are individually defined: COPD is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide and imparts substantial economic burden on individuals and health systems.

Indirect costs are caused by reduced or lost productivity due to the disease or early death. Halbert et al 10 assessed the prevalence of COPD in 17 cities in Europe and North America after reviewing 32 articles published between and There is great scarcity of information on COPD prevalence and associated factors. The major risk factor for COPD is cigarette smoking. Pipe and cigar smoking and other popular forms of tobacco consumption are also factors associated with COPD.

Other factors include occupational dusts and chemicals; indoor air pollution from wood stoves used for cooking and heating in poorly ventilated dwellings; outdoor pollution, which adds to the overall effects of inhaled particles on the lungs, though its role in COPD is not yet understood; and passive smoking, which can also contribute to respiratory symptoms and COPD.

There were abouthospitalizations due to COPD in The number of deaths from COPD in Brazil was 38, people per year, ranking between the fifth and sixth leading cause of death excluding violent deaths. Between and mortality from COPD increased by Given the importance of this condition in Brazil, the present study aimed to assess the prevalence of Cfonica and factors associated. A total of 3, adults of both sexes aged 40 years or more were selected and the final sample consisted of 1, individuals.


A two-stage census tract, household cluster random sampling stratified by sex and age was used. Data was collected through a structured questionnaire comprising 21 obetructiva groups with mostly closed questions. Uplmonar non-response rate was The independent variables selected for the analysis were: Interactions between the variables in the final model were also examined. The design effects for the analysis of complex survey data were also examined. The analyses were carried out in SPSS All respondents signed a consent form informing the purposes of the study and information requested and ensuring confidentiality of all information provided.

Of the 1, respondents aged 40 years or more, Sixty-eight percent reported living in a house, The estimated prevalence of self-reported COPD was 4.

The variables associated with COPD in the crude analysis were: The independent variables associated with self-reported COPD in the multiple regression model were: The only study published in Brazil until was carried out in Pelotas, southern Brazil.

It was found a prevalence dodnca Although it was an important study on the epidemiology of chronic bronchitis in Brazil, emphysema was not investigated and thus the prevalence of COPD was not assessed. The interaction between exposure to environmental risk factors such as cigarette smoking, and individual factors is key for the development of COPD.

The most important risk factor for COPD is cigarette smoking. Pipe and cigar smoking and other forms obstructtiva tobacco consumption are also risk factors. The Platino Project showed that smokers had a PR of 2. The highest prevalence of COPD are found between the sixth and seventh decade of life. The prevalence ratio for COPD was 2. COPD compromises lung mechanics, peripheral muscles and cardiovascular system, which doejca explain their dyspnea and perception of fatigue with exertion.

Changes in lung mechanics result from bronchial obstruction and air trapping in the lungs. This pathophysiological process leads to lung hyperinflation over time, which progressively reduces one’s ability to physical exertion. The pathophysiological crnoica aggravate as COPD progresses and patients develop limiting symptoms such as cronicca. They have reduced ability to perform daily life activities and consequently it creates a vicious cycle as they limit their activities to mitigate the symptoms.

COPD patients have higher risk of cardiovascular death regardless of tobacco use. This phenomenon may be explained by a common genetic predisposition to atherosclerosis and emphysema because both are systemic inflammatory diseases. Because of physical inability caused by the disease and reduced daily activities to mitigate the symptoms, COPD patients tend to spend most of the day in the sitting position.

Pul,onar of breath and early muscle fatigue during any physical exertion may explain excessive resting in these patients. Contrary to common belief, it is highly recommended supervised exercise training at any stage of the disease, and pulmonary rehabilitation aims to optimize croniica patient’s physical and social performance and autonomy.

Pulmonary rehabilitation care has four main components: Pulmonary rehabilitation in COPD dronica can improve exercise ability and health-related quality of life; reduce the perceived shortness of breath; reduce obsstructiva number of hospitalizations and days of hospital stay, and exercise training of upper limb muscles can reduce the perceived shortness of breath. Obstruuctiva activity can reduce the risk of developing COPD. A case-control study carried out in Japan with cases and controls aged between 50 and 75 years concluded that those who remained active throughout their life had better lung function when compared to sedentary people.

Given the dose-response relationship obstrctiva exercise and health, individuals who wish to improve their physical fitness, reduce their risk of chronic diseases and disabilities or prevent weight gain may benefit from exceeding the minimum recommended level of physical activity.


Garcia-Aymerich et al 7 followed up 6, adults for 10 years to assess the association dooenca physical activity and lung function decline and COPD risk among smokers and nonsmokers. Among those individuals smokers and nonsmokers who engaged in moderate to high levels of physical activity, the relative risk for developing COPD was 0. There was also seen a protective effect against the development of COPD among current smokers who engaged in moderate to high levels of physical activity with a relative risk of 0.

Physical activity can prevent COPD regardless of smoking. The biological plausibility of the influence of physical activity on lung function decline relies on the anti-inflammatory effects of physical activity. However, Mullerova et al 21 back the validity of self-reports in epidemiological studies on respiratory diseases because data has shown adequate sensitivity and specificity in population-based surveys, as it may reflect indirectly the actual disease prevalence and constitute an indirect indicator with good reliability.

From an epidemiological perspective, estimating the prevalence of dosnca respiratory disease in a population is an easy, straightforward approach to obtain information on health status and shows good agreement, reproducibility and cost-effective when considering the results of clinical evaluations.

Cross-sectional studies with complex sampling design are widely used in epidemiology. The use of clusters leads to less accurate estimates of the variance than simple random sampling, which in turn leads to less accurate results than a stratified sample. Studies with complex sampling should provide accurate estimates of the parameters studied and the design effect Deff assesses how well it was obtained considering the variance between simple and complex random sampling.

Besides being used in the study planning for estimating the sample size, the Deff is used to assess the error made when ignoring the complex sampling and analyzing the data as if they were drawn by simple random sampling.

The Deff is the “price” paid by the researchers for having their task facilitated by investigating only randomly selected clusters, which results in increased inaccuracy pulmobar the results due to potential correlations of the sampling units within and between clusters.

The present study highlights the significant association of COPD with tobacco use and age over Frequent health problems and reduced leisure-time physical activity can be regarded as outcomes of this disease. In the light of the increasing trend of COPD due to increasing longevity, early diagnosis and an education approach to smoking cessation and physical activity promotion are extremely important for improving health-related quality of life in these individuals and reducing the economic impact of COPD to the health system.

Trends in hospitalization with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease – United States, Anti-inflammatory nature of exercise. Prevalence of major comorbidities in subjects with COPD and incidence of myocardial infarction and stroke: Fiedman M, Hilleman DE.

Economic burden of chronic obstrutive pulmonary disease: Fletcher C, Peto R. The natural history of chronic airflow obstruction.

Doença pulmonar obstrutiva crõnica

Regular physical activity modifies smoking-related lung function decline and reduces risk ovstructiva chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: Skeletal muscle dysfunction in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and chronic heart failure: Am J Clin Nutr. Interaction between smoking and genetic factors in the development of chronic bronchitis.

Interpreting COPD prevalence estimates: Global burden of COPD: Physical activity and public health: Life-long physical activity involvement reduces the risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: J Phys Act Health.