Search results. 7 results for Books: “Edward Morawski” Polonez. 1 Jan by Edward Morawski. Currently unavailable. FSO-Daewoo Polonez Atu Plus .. One faction, which included Prime Minister Edward Osóbka-Morawski, wanted to join forces with the Peasant Party, another . Order of the Cross of Grunwald, 3rd class; Grand Cross of the Order of Polonia Restituta; Partisan Cross · Medal of Victory and Freedom

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Poland is one of the largest producer of light vehicles passenger cars in Central and Eastern Europe. As of Poland was the 23rd largest automaker in the world. The first Polish company that produced automobile vehicles, Ursuswas established inand became known for a line of tractors produced since Production increased following the fall of communismand peaked atvehicles arounddeclining for the next few years.

For the periodPoland was the second largest producer of light vehicles passenger cars in Central and Eastern Europeafter the Czech Republic and not counting Russia. The sector employs aboutpeople, and produces about ,—, light vehicles a year. Majority of major the sector is controlled by international companies and financed by foreign investment ; with the Solaris bus and truck producer being the largest company in the market that is owned by Polish investors.

Car — A car is a wheeled, self-powered motor vehicle used for transportation and a product of the automotive industry. The year is regarded as the year of the modern car. In that year, German inventor Karl Benz built the Benz Patent-Motorwagen, cars did not become widely available until the early 20th century. One of the first cars that was accessible to the masses was the Model T, an American car manufactured by the Ford Motor Company.

Cars were rapidly adopted in the United States of America, where they replaced animal-drawn carriages and carts, cars are equipped with controls used for driving, parking, passenger comfort and safety, and controlling a variety of lights. Over the decades, additional features and controls have been added to vehicles, examples include rear reversing cameras, air conditioning, navigation systems, and in car entertainment.

Most cars in use in the s are propelled by a combustion engine. Both fuels cause air pollution and are blamed for contributing to climate change. Vehicles using alternative fuels such as ethanol flexible-fuel vehicles and natural gas vehicles are also gaining popularity in some countries, electric cars, which were invented early in the history of the car, began to become commercially available in There are costs and benefits to car use, the costs of car usage include the cost of, acquiring the vehicle, interest payments, repairs and auto maintenance, fuel, depreciation, driving time, parking fees, taxes, and insurance.

The costs to society of car use include, maintaining roads, land use, road congestion, air pollution, public health, health care, road traffic accidents are the largest cause of injury-related deaths worldwide. The benefits may include transportation, mobility, independence. The ability for humans to move flexibly from place to place has far-reaching implications for the nature of societies and it was estimated in that the number of cars had risen to over 1 billion vehicles, up from the million of The numbers are increasing rapidly, especially in China, India, the word car is believed to originate from the Latin word carrus or carrum, or the Middle English word carre.

In turn, these originated from the Gaulish word karros, the Gaulish language was a branch of the Brythoic language which also used the word Karr, the Brythonig language evolved into Welsh where Car llusg and car rhyfel still survive. It originally referred to any wheeled vehicle, such as a cart, carriage. Motor car is attested fromand is the formal name for cars in British English.

Autocar is a variant that is attested from The cc engines were available in early production. A subsequent increase took the size to cc in new restyling model Fiat Bis.

In Italy, the car was produced in the plants of Cassino, by this time 1, of the cars had been produced in Italy. The car continued however to be manufactured by FSM in Poland, even after the introduction of the Bis, the original model continued to be produced for the Polish market.

The car was produced under licence by Zastava in Yugoslavia. Inthe received a facelift, giving it plastic bumpers and this model named Fiat p FL.

Inthe p received another facelift, and some parts from the Fiat Cinquecento, the ELX introduced a catalytic converter. Despite clever marketing, the never achieved the popularity of the The total number of produced is,1, in Italy,3, in Poland,2, in Austria, and an unknown number in Yugoslavia.

Two models were offered, a lesser equipped one called the POP, the car was produced in Poland under the brand Polski Fiat p between and To distinguish it from the original Italian car, the p was added to its name. Some owners upgraded to a 45 Amp-hour battery from Morawaki p to improve the cold start reliability, due to a relatively low price it was very popular in Poland and was arguably the most popular car there in the s. Its very small moorawski gave it edwar nickname maluch, the nickname became so popular that in it was accepted by the producer as the official name of the car.


It was exported to many Edwaed Bloc countries and for years it was one of the most popular cars in Poland. Edwxrd the s, it has carried out some production of trolleybuses in a joint venture with the Ukrainian manufacturer Bogdan. The Ursus Factory was founded in Poland in on 15 Sienna Street, Warsaw and it began producing exhaust engines and then later trucks and metal fittings intended for the Russian Tsar.

It then began producing tractors, tanks and other heavy machinery for troops. During the s, the Ursus factory began producing tractors using a Zetor-based design, bythere was a growing need for tractors in Poland, but the tractors produced by the Ursus factory did not meet the needs of Polish agriculture. The goal was to construct a joint tractor industry where Poland and Czechoslovakia would combine to producetractors per year, workers of the Ursus tractor factory played a large role in the moeawski movement in the s and s.

This was one of the largest and eward disruptive strikes that occurred that day, inworkers of the Ursus factory went on strike and spent the night at the factory to protest the detention of Jan Narozniak, a volunteer printing worker at the Polonrz chapter of Solidarity. Also in ,16, workers threatened to stop coming to work on Saturdays in order to self-enforce the 5-day work week proclaimed by the Solidarity movement, the Ursus factory was the focus of an extensive investment initiative in the s under Edward Gierek.

However, such investment programmes became inefficient and failed, leaving Poland with an immense debt, by ,25 billion dollars were locked into inefficient, unfinished projects in Polish industry that were speculated to require an additional 50 billion dollars to complete. Instead of the production of 75, tractors per year. Ursus tractor production declined throughout the s, falling from 60, tractors per year morawaki to about 16, tractors inthe oplonez in production was due to the enormous debt that Ursus had contracted as a result of its expansion programme in the s.

The need to repay the debt blocked access to funds needed for the operations of the factory.

The company is still producing Ursus tractors, Bumar Ltd became the main shareholder of Ursus Company, leading to Ursus becoming part of Bumar Industrial Group, which is marketing Ursus products both on foreign and domestic markets. Tractor — A tractor is an engineering vehicle specifically designed to deliver a high tractive effort at slow speeds, for the purposes of hauling a trailer or machinery used in agriculture or construction.

Most commonly, the term is used to describe a farm vehicle that provides the power and traction to mechanize agricultural tasks, especially tillage, but nowadays a great variety of tasks.

Agricultural implements may be towed behind or mounted on the tractor, the word tractor was taken from Latin, being the agent noun of trahere to pull. The first recorded use of the meaning an engine or vehicle for pulling wagons or ploughs occurred in In Canada and the USA, the word may refer to the road tractor portion of a polonze trailer truck.

The first powered farm implements in the early 19th century were portable engines — steam engines on wheels that poloenz be used to drive farm machinery by way of a flexible belt.

Richard Trevithick designed the first semi-portable stationary steam engine polones use, known as a barn engine in The truly portable engine was invented in by William Tuxford of Boston, a large flywheel was mounted on the crankshaft, and a stout leather belt was used to transfer the drive to the equipment being driven.

In parallel with the portable engine development, many engineers attempted to make them self-propelled — the fore-runners of the traction engine.

In most cases this was achieved by fitting a sprocket on the end of the crankshaft and these experiments met with mixed success. The alteration was made by fitting a long driving chain between the crankshaft and the rear axle. The first half of the s was a period of great experimentation but by the end of the decade the standard form of the engine had evolved. It was widely adopted for agricultural use, the first tractors were steam-powered plowing engines.

They were used in pairs, placed on side of a field to haul a plow back. In Britain Manns and Garrett developed steam tractors for direct ploughing, in the United States, where soil conditions permitted, steam tractors were used to direct-haul plows. A Van Duzen single-cylinder gasoline engine was mounted on edwarr Robinson engine chassis, after receiving a patent, Froelich started up the Waterloo Gasoline Engine Company and invested all of his assets.

Aftermath of World War I — The aftermath of World War I saw drastic political, cultural, economic, and social change across Europe, Asia, Africa, and even in areas outside those that were directly involved.


As Germany was dependent on imports, it is estimated thatcivilians had lost their lives. Howard, of the University of Sheffield, the continuation of the blockade after the fighting ended, as author Robert Leckie wrote in Delivered From Evil, did much to torment the Germans. Driving them with the fury of despair into the arms of the devil, the terms of the Armistice did allow food to be shipped into Germany, but the Allies required that Germany provide the means to do so.

The German government was required pllonez use its reserves, being unable to secure a loan from the United States. She further claims that the German government delayed the effort by refusing to surrender their merchant fleet to moraws,i Allies.

Category:Edward Osóbka-Morawski

Finally, she concludes that the success of the relief effort had in effect deprived the of a credible threat to induce Germany to sign the Treaty of Versailles. Food shipments, furthermore, had been dependent on Allied goodwill. Other treaties ended the belligerent relationships of the United States and the other Central Powers, included in the articles of the Treaty of Versailles were the demands that Germany officially accept responsibility for starting the war and pay economic reparations.

Historians continue to argue about the impact the flu pandemic had on the outcome of the war and it has been posited that the Central Powers may have been exposed to the viral wave before the Allies. The resulting casualties having greater effect, having been incurred during the war, when the extent of the epidemic was realized, the respective censorship programs of the Allies and Central Powers limited the publics knowledge regarding the true extent of the disease.

Because Spain was neutral, their media was free to report on the Flu and this misunderstanding led to contemporary reports naming it the Spanish flu. A significant precursor virus was harbored in birds, and mutated to pigs that were kept near the front, the exact number of deaths is unknown but about 50 million people are estimated to have died from the influenza outbreak worldwide. Some of them, such as Czechoslovakia and Poland, had substantial ethnic minorities who were not fully satisfied with the new boundaries that cut them off from fellow ethnics.

For example, Czechoslovakia had Germans, Poles, Ruthenians and Ukrainians, Slovaks, the League of Nations sponsored various Minority Treaties in an attempt to deal with the problem, but with the decline of the League in the s, these treaties became increasingly unenforceable.

One consequence of the redrawing of borders and the political changes in the aftermath of the war was the large number of European refugees. Tankette — A tankette is a tracked armoured fighting vehicle that resembles a small tank, roughly the size of a car. It is mainly intended for infantry support and scouting. Colloquially it may simply mean a small tank. Several countries built tankettes between the s and s, and some saw limited combat in the phases of World War II.

The vulnerability of their armor, however, eventually led armies to abandon the concept. Tankettes were made both in two- and three-man models, some were so low that the occupant had to lie prone. Some models were not equipped with turrets, or just a simple one that was traversed by hand or leg.

Polonez: budowa, naprawa, eksploatacja – Edward Morawski – Google Books

They were significantly smaller than light tanks and did not have a tank gun, the genesis of the tankette concept was the armoured warfare of World War I. The breakthrough tanks were isolated and destroyed and reinforcements plugged the hole in the trench line. The tankette was conceived in the early interwar period to solve this problem. The first designs were a sort of mobile, one-man machine gun nest protected against small arms fire and this idea was abandoned and the two man-model, mainly intended for reconnaissance, was produced instead.

The moving up of infantry while protecting them was solved with the personnel carrier. The publicity caused John Carden and Vivian Loyd to produce their own, both types were developed further, but the two-man Carden Loyd tankette was considered the classic and most successful design, with many other tankettes modeled after it. While the design was influential, few Carden Loyd tankettes saw combat, however, the design did lead to the universal carrier, which had an extensive operational history in the Second World War.

Some L3s went with the Italian Expeditionary Corps in Russia as late as Operation Barbarossa, the French armoured reconnaissance type of the s was essentially a tankette in form, specifically intended for scouting ahead of the main force.

Inthe Soviets experimented with transporting Ts by air, the Imperial Japanese Army became one of the most prolific users of tankettes, producing a number of designs intended for jungle warfare.