16; Louis Vax, Arte y literatura fantásticas (Buenos Aires: Eudeba, ), p. 6. 2. Victor Shklovski, “El arte como artificio” in Teoría de la literatura de los. EL ARTE COMO ARTIFICIO; Autor. Shklovski. INTEGRANTES: Antonieta Ontiveros Ruiz; Adriana López Núñez; Gabriela G. Agis Mendoza. Dra. Flor de María. Shklovski, Viktor (). El arte como artificio (). In Todorov, Tzvetan (Ed.), Teoría de la literatura de los formalistas rusos. Argentina: Siglo XXI, pp.

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From these two principles, God conceives of infinite possible worlds and choses one of them as the best possible.

After establishing the concrete meaning of each term, and along with the contribution of some key theoretical concepts, including Possible Worlds, Indexicality and Metalepsis, we will make a global adaptation of the concept of video games as objects of study.

viktor shklovski el arte como artificio pdf writer

To answer this question, Juul makes a comparative analysis between the movie Star Wars and the video game Atari made with the same name in Along with the concept of Lewisian counterpart, Dolezel affirms that real non-existence is homogenous and also that fictional worlds do not have to be subject to the dictatorship of pure reference.

For Lewis, all that is, exists. Thus, common points have been grouped together and those unique traits of literature have not been incorporated. For the French philosopher, the mimetic function can be classified into five large groups, distinct in application and complexity: Thus, independently of the debate on the narrator issue, it becomes more convenient to think of narration not as an open concept that encompasses all forms of expression, but as a stated act in which, through a discourse or configuration of events in a given order, achieves a chronologically ordered story.

Under this conception and using Huizinga and Callois as references, Collantes establishes a categorization of video games as narrative experiences in function of their reference or not to another world: In the early 70s, Western society discovered its technological fascination once more. All of these mediums, including more traditional media like the press, have been objects of study in Spanish academia to a greater or lesser extent.

Who could help me? Today, video games have not only developed playability and graphic-sound capacity, but also have managed to build fictional worlds similar to film, theater or literature. Susana Pajares Tosca emphasized the senselessness of the debate and the unnecessary positioning of researchers regarding the conflict, which seemed to emerge in the majority of studies. Such is the case, for example, of fictional non-narrative mediums of expression, such as certain visual works or board games based on specific fiction: Thus, from Greek and religious teachings to new forms of digital communication, humanity has constructed collective imaginary worlds of different natures and scopes to design, spread and maintain certain worlds, but also to analyze and oppose them.


However, issues arise with this approach when it confronts fictional entities without clear referents. We must keep in mind that the contradiction of a fictional world must be analyzed intrinsically and not from referentiality except, logically, when the fictional world undermines the inter-world identity by distorting it.

In this sense, the origin of video games consists of this same relation to the machine: It is evident that the intensional perspective does not deny, in any case, the participation of extensional or referentialist semantics, also known as world semantics Albadalejo,p. Umberto Eco defined this, in Lector in fabula, as follows: Jenkins notes that video games and short films have broadened this science fiction world by filling gaps and enriching its context through different stories on different platforms b, p.

Thus, games may be more abstract than movies without losing the potential of their relationship with the player p.

Thus, contemporary culture has introduced new discursive forms such as non-linear narrative in the form of hypertext Landow, or popular modal narratives Cameron, in movies like Memento Nolan, shkloovski Pulp Fiction Tarantino, in which an extreme disassembling between story and discourse is produced. On one hand, the viewer-story relationship is generally based on a certain anthropomorphic identification.

The preconfiguration phase Mimesis I in the fictional work responds to both the pragmatic framework of the creation and the extensional semantics within a specific cultural context.

Thus, enormous stores full of gaming machines emerged, where a user could, against payment, interact with shklogski and play. In this way, we can establish and uphold a concrete meaning of each one of the concepts at hand.

Victor, “Probleme der literarischen Gattungsgeschichte”, Deuts Therefore, in the following section, we will develop a specific concept of possible fictional worlds in video games that, on one hand, fits into this group of intermediate stances and, on the other hand, allows us to analyze its own relations of mimesis, fiction and narration that we have seen previously.

The phases proposed by Kucklich are the first approach towards understanding video games as possible worlds, even if a aftificio application of the proposed typology was never suggested. But much has changed since the era of arcades filled with new gaming machines and youth spending coom playing emblematic titles like Space Invaders Taito Corporation, or Pac-Man Namco, But the artificlo surprising thing occurred after the anthropologist returned to the village in question.

Thank you very much. In the same way, Sshklovski supports this position of recentering by considering the real as an encyclopedia and possible worlds as cultural constructions.


The author shows the influence of Samuel Beckett’s work in the oeuvre of the In it, the Nordic author proposes a special interpretation of games and video games as cybertexts, distancing them from the traditional concept of the hegemonic hypertext Bolter, ; Landow, Where fiction is silent, a gap is produced that sgklovski not subject to truth propositions, but rather shows the incomplete and ethereal nature of the imaginary.

Así la vida desaparece transformándose en nada. La – Sistemas de representación de la realidad

In his Principles of MathematicsRussell admits the possibility of a non- existent being through the previously mentioned example of the golden mountain. As a matter of fact, many worlds are conceived artkficio opposition to other worlds. Thus, philosophical models consider possible worlds as accessible alternatives to the actual world, but never as impossible constructs from the perspective of their actual or merely possible existence.

artifici Therefore, in this book, contemporary video games are considered complex rl worlds that participate, as cultural objects, in inserted relationships within current social, economic, and political frameworks.

Hubert Humphrey would be interested, at any rate, if there were the possibility that in a possible world he would win the elections. Conversely, in the configuration phase Mimesis IIthe fictional framework is governed mainly by logic based on intensional semantics, without damaging the role that the issue of extension may play in each specific fiction. In contrast, the study of the text from semantics assumes a richness from the perspective of the so-called intensionality of the text.

In this sense, the Star Wars game is configured as accumulated action sequences from the movie, converted into the play experience. Who is the real entity that Gandalf is based on, or Ignatius J. But without a doubt, its main contribution remains its application to the principles of logic in metaphysics.

Dolezel has emphasized this ontological and referentialist perspective of the mimetic concept as one of the main hurdles for conceiving a truly satisfactory theory of fiction. One of their greatest representatives was cinematography; the moving image and fantasy of ending with death had a profound impact on society at the time Burch,p.

In this way, and as we shall see later, the only way out is to overcome the single world framework and support a model of possible worlds.